Phalcon Interview Questions

Phalcon Interview Questions | Freshers & Experienced

  • Sharad Jaiswal
  • 06th Sep, 2021

About Phalcon

Phalcon is the first framework that implements ORM in the C Programming language. Phalcon, a PHP web framework released in the year 2012 under a BSD license. Like others, its architecture is also based on the MVC (Model-view-controller) pattern. In comparison with other frameworks which are written in PHP only, Phalcon is a C extension to the PHP interpreter itself. This means that it is loaded only once when the server is booted. It also doesn't need to interpret for every request of PHP. In addition, Zephir (a high-level programing language) is also present which leads to high customization of Phalcon. It is done to enhance speed, reduce resource usage, and handle more HTTP requests per second.

Key Features of Phalcon

Below are few major features of Phalcon

Fastest PHP framework

MVC and HMVC Architecture

Active record implementation

Multiple Database Support

High Performance

Low memory and CPU consumption

Supports Dependency injection

Low overhead

Support for Rest API

Practice Best Phalcon Interview Questions & Answers

Q1. Explain what is Phalcon?

Phalcon is an open-source framework based on the MVC(Module View Controller) pattern. This framework is based on the PHP programming language that implements ORM. It is a loosely coupled framework that allows the user to build a project that has a directory structure that is convenient for a specific application. It allows the objects to be treated like glue components based on the needs of the application.

Q2. Enlist major features of Phalcon?

Some of the prominent features of the Phalcon are,

  • Phalcon is a full-stack open-source framework.
  • Phalcon makes the user need less amount of code to use several components.
  • Phalcon is used to create an independent framework. Phalcon’s cache component can be used in any application written either in pure PHP or using a framework. This is just one example of creating an independent framework using Phalcon.
  • It is based on MVC (Model-View-Controller) and ORM (Object-Relational-Modeling). So developers already familiar with these technologies, Phalcon is easy to learn.

Q3. What are loaders in Phalcon?

The loaders in Phalcon is used to automatically load the project classes based on some predefined rules. This loader component is written in C so it provides less overhead in reading and interpreting from external PHP files.

Loader offers a security layer to avoid the inclusion of unauthorized files.

Q4. What is PHQL in Phalcon?

PHQL (Phalcon Query Language) is a query language similar to SQL. It is a high-level, object-oriented query language. PHQL is also implemented as a parser that connects to the RDBMS. It uses the same technology as the SQLite. It has features like SQL injection prevention, ignoring comments used in the SQL injection, securing the code using the bound parameters.

Q5. What is zephir in Phalcon?

Zephir is an open-source, high-level language that is domain-specific. It is used to ease the creation and the maintainability of the extension for the PHP. It has a focus on memory and type safety. The extensions created with Zephir are exported to the C code. Then it is compiled and optimized by C compilers like GCC, clang, vc++. Finally, the functionality of the extension is exposed to the PHP language.

Q6. Which template engine Phalcon uses?

The template engine used in Phalcon is the volt. Volt provides a fast and designer-friendly template that is written in C language used for PHP.

This engine is written by Armin Ronacher inspired by Jinja.

Q7. What is ODM in Phalcon?

ODM (Object Documentation Mapper) in Phalcon is used to map documents from the NoSQL database. It offers CRUD functionality, events, and validation services. It also eliminates SQL building thereby reducing the possibility of the SQL injections.

Using ODM, NoSQL databases can see real improvements in performance as there is an absence of SQL queries and planners.

Q8. Explain lazy initialization in Phalcon?

Lazy initialization in Phalcon is a technique to automatically load a class by using the 'Loader' class. It loads the class during the runtime, thereby improving the performance. Phalcon provides different ways to automatically load a class using lazy initialization.

Q9. How to know Phalcon version?

The method _getVersion() is used to get the version of the installed Phalcon in your system.

Use the following command to get the version.

echo Phalcon\Version::get();

Q10. List different types of database relationships Phalcon supports?

There are four types of database relationships that Phalcon supports.

  1. one-on-one
  2. one-to-many
  3. many-to-one
  4. many-to-many

These relationships may be unidirectional, or bidirectional. There are methods available to create these relationships.

The methods for creating

  • one to many
  • one to one
  • many to one
  • many to many

Relationships are hasMany, hasOne, belongsTo, hasManyToMany.

Q11. What is Phalcon cli?

CLI (Command Line Interface) is used to execute the CLI applications. These applications do not have a view layer and can be run more than one at a time.

The Phalcon Console class present in the CLI directory is used to create a CLI application in the Phalcon.

Q12. How to create session in Phalcon?

The session can be created using the Session class.

$session = new Session(); 
$session -> start();

The above code creates and starts the session.

Q13. What is use of link_to function in Phalcon?

The linkto() method is used to show links. It helps with navigation from one area to another. It accepts three parameters. They are parameters, text, and local. The parameter may be an array or a string. If a string is passed, it will be treated as a URL. The array can be passed as a parameter using action, query, text, and local. The text parameter is a string type that is the text of the link. The local parameter is a boolean type that is the local or remote link.

Q14. List few database related functions in Phalcon?

Some of the methods to work with the database in Phalcon are,

  • find() and findfirst() - These method queries the database and returns the element that matches the specified criteria.
  • Findfirst() - gets the first record matching the specified criteria.
  • create() or update() - It is used to make sure that a record in the database is created or updated.
  • delete() - As the name suggests, this function is used to delete a record.

Q15. What are Phalcon annotations?

Annotations in Phalcon is a general-purpose component that is used to provide ease of parsing and caching annotations in the PHP classes. These annotations can be placed at any position and are read from docblocks in classes, methods, and properties.

//syntax for creating annotation. 
* @Annotation-Name
*@Annotation-Name(param1, param2, ...)

Besides these, Phalcon has fascinating features which you can read in the below article. Also, if you are preparing for Phalcon interview questions, then you must check our online interview questions. You will be equipped with the basic concepts of each topic in Phalcon. Start it today!

Phalcon vs Laravel




PHP web framework

Phalcon is relying on the PHP web framework

It is an open source PHP web framework


It is less scalable

It is highly scalable in comparison with Phalcon


It is more complex than the Laravel

It is simple


It has some great features like MVC, HMVC, and overhead, etc.

It has basic features of the PHP framework and the symphony.


It is one of the fastest PHP frameworks.

It is comparatively slower than Phalcon.


It has good performance

It has poor performance comparatively.


It required good programming skill and knowledge of C programming as well.

It does not require programming skill.


Phalcon is customizable with Zephir.

Laravel comes with Artisan.


Phalcon does not have good communication and documentation

Laravel have good communication and documentation.

Template System

It uses the Volt template system

It uses the Blade template system

Design practices

It follows good design practices.

It uses poor design practices.


Advantage of Phalcon

  • The great feature of Phalcon is available of C- extensions which are a one-time process on the web server.

  • Classes and functions provide ready-to-use extensions to the applications.

  • It has a compiled code with no interpretation.

  • It provides a lower MVC based application.

  • Performance and speed are good as compared to the other frameworks as in Phalcon, ORM is implemented in the C language, unlike other frameworks where PHP is the only language used.

  • It is easy to use.

  • It is able to create an independent framework.

  • It provides object-relational mapping (ORM), routing, templating engine and caching, etc.

  • PHP developer tools allow you to generate boilerplate code and jump straight to the implementation of your application's.

Disadvantages of Phalcon:


  • Phalcon's ORM is definitely faster than other frameworks, but it is not flexible enough. You will find difficult at starting but, get easier later.

  • In contrast to other frameworks, Phalcon doesn't have good communication and documentation. So, the developers sometimes find difficult to understand the outcomes and uses of Phalcon.


About Author :

  • Author of Phalcon Interview Questions

    Sharad Jaiswal

    My name is Sharad Jaiswal, and I am the founder of Conax web Solutions. My tech stacks are PHP, NodeJS, Angular, React. I love to write technical articles and programming blogs.

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