Microprocessor Interview Questions

Microprocessor Interview Questions | Freshers & Experienced

  • Sharad Jaiswal
  • 07th Dec, 2021
  • 1021 Followers

Key Features of Microprocessor

Below are few major features of Microprocessor

Cost

Size

Power Consumption

Versatility

Reliability

Clock Speed

Parallel Processing

Repeatability

Practice Best Microprocessor Interview Questions and Answers;

Q1. What is a microprocessor?

A microprocessor can be defined as a Central Processing Unit (CPU) a computer system utilizes to work. It is an electronic component that sits on an integrated circuit. This integrated circuit is made up of many components such as resistors, diodes, and transistors. All of these components work together. Without the microprocessor in a computer system, you can’t search a piece of information on the website. The functions of a computer system are its desktop or laptop is described by the computer program’s instructions. This information is carried out by the microprocessor.

Q2. What is 8085 Microprocessor?

The 8085 microprocessor is one of the types of microprocessors that Intel developed. The "eighty-eighty-five" microprocessor as it is pronounced is an 8-bit microprocessor that was manufactured by making use of NMOS technology. Apart from having an 8-bit data bus, it comprises a 16-bit address bus, a 16-bit stack pointer, a 16-bit program counter, and six 8-bit registers.

The 8085 microprocessor is used by different electronic devices such as mobile phone, computer system like a laptop, desktop, palmtop, microwave or ovens, washing machine and others too numerous to mention

Q3. What is an interrupt in the microprocessor?

An interrupt in a microprocessor is when the microprocessor temporarily leaves the task, work or function it is operating on to work on another before returning back to the previous work. An interrupt in the microprocessor can either be external or internal.

An external interrupt which is also known as hardware interrupt is triggered by external hardware.

An internal interrupt which is also called software interrupt is caused by a software demand or instruction. An interrupt can happen while pressing a keyboard or clicking on a mouse. When this happens,

The microprocessor pauses its current operation to move to another before returning back to the task or operation.

Q4. What is the 8086 microprocessor?

An 8086 microprocessor is the immediate higher upgrade of the 8085 microprocessor. While the 8085 microprocessor is an 8-bit microprocessor, this microprocessor is a 16-bit microprocessor. It is made of 16 data lines or data bus, 20 address bus. With these features, it offers close to 1-megabyte storage. The 8086 microprocessor is also made up of an instruction set that offers division and multiplication operations easily. This advanced version of the microprocessor supports the minimum and maximum modes of operation. A minimum mode works well in a computer system that has only one processor while the maximum mode is best for computers with many processors.

Q5. What is the bus in a microprocessor?

A bus in the microprocessor can be described as the route for digital signals to freely and rapidly move information or data. There are three types of internal buses a microprocessor has. The buses are address, control, and data bus. The combination of these buses forms the system bus. The system bus is a bus that is inside the processor. It serves as a connector between the microprocessor and internal hardware components. Data moves in a bi-directional manner inside and outside the data bus. This is not so in the address and control bus where data moves in and out in one direction, that is, uni-directional.

Q6. What is a flag in the microprocessor?

A microprocessor is an electronic component that processes and sends data to other systems. The flag which is an advanced kind of register is one of the basic and paramount parts of the microprocessor.

The flag in a microprocessor is responsible for registering the results of actions and calculations. From the result of every flag in a microprocessor, the next action of the microprocessor is determined. This goes a long way in assisting the microprocessor to make decisions. This simply shows that the microprocessor does not the only process or send data, it also plays a prominent role in decision making in a computer system.

Q7. What is interfacing in a microprocessor?

The interface in the microprocessor is simply the communication path that exists between two computer components. Interfacing in the microprocessor can either be a memory or input/output, (I/O) interfacing.

For memory Interfacing

When an instruction is being executed, the microprocessor is expected to access the memory for data stored and for reading instructional codes in the computer memory. To actualize this, the microprocessor be it 8086 or 8085 together with the memory need signals to write to or read from registers.

For input/output interfacing

A computer system is made of many communication components such as a printer, mouse et al. This makes interfacing these communication devices with the microprocessor vital. It is done using a buffer and latch.

Q8. What is register in microprocessor?

A register in a microprocessor is a location where data and addresses are stored temporarily. The register is found inside the central processing unit. With registers, vital information of computer users is stored for reference use. The register file comprises of many other registers of the microprocessor. Special registers like the status register and the PC are placed inside the register file by a few central processing units (CPU) while in some central processing units, the registers are kept separately from others.

Q9. What is stack in a microprocessor?

In a general term, a stack is where data is stored on a temporal basis. Accessing data stored inside the stack is done in a LIFO technique. The acronym LIFO stands for Last In First Out (LIFO). This simply means that the data stored last in a stack is the first to be retrieved. Also, the first data or information stored inside the stack is the last data to be retrieved. A stack in the microprocessor can be described using a pile of books in a tight bookshelf with one opening on top where you have to remove the first book before you can access others.

Q10. What is polling in microprocessor?

On a few occasions, the CPU stops its operation to check if there is a message from some controllers. In a situation when there is a message, the main processor will process the message the controllers left for it before it goes back to the task it was operating on. This process is known as polling in the microprocessor. It has similarities with interrupt but the two are not the same. Both are microprocessor operations.

Q11. What is a subroutine in a microprocessor?

A subroutine in the microprocessor is a sequence or ordered list or series of computer program instructions that work a particular assignment that is single packaged together or arranged in the unit. This unit is now utilized in computer programs when a specific task or assignment is to work on. A subroutine in the microprocessor is usually coded. This is carried out so that it can be called many times and from many locations during program execution. This is carried out by utilizing the Return and Call instructions.

Q12. What is pipelining in a microprocessor?

Pipelining is a microprocessor is a technique an advanced microprocessor makes use of where the microprocessor starts working on a new task or instruction before the completion of the first task or instruction. This shows that there are many instructions arranged simultaneously in the pipeline. These instructions are stored in a different processing stage. The pipeline in the microprocessor is broken down into different segments and every segment can perform its operation at the same time with other segments. The result of a segment on completion is passed to the segment immediately following the current in the pipeline.

Q13. What is opcode and operand in a microprocessor?

The opcode and operand are two instructions performed in a microprocessor.

The opcode instruction informs the computer processor on things to be done. On the other hand, the operand is that aspect of the instruction that comprises the data or information to be worked on. It can also be described as the storage of data inside a register.

Q14. When mvi is used in a microprocessor?

A mvi is used in a microprocessor when there is a need to move data immediately to a register or any memory location.

Q15. What is Microprocessor logic?

A microprocessor which is also known as the logic chip is a computer processor residing on a microchip. The microprocessor is made up of CPU functions. It is generally the engine that runs when a computer system is booted. A microprocessor performs different functions that are categorized into logic and arithmetic operations.

Some of the operations of a microprocessor are addition, multiplication, comparison of numbers, subtraction, etc all. Fetching of information from different locations is also another operation of the microprocessor. The aforementioned operations are the outcome of the instruction set that encompassed in the microprocessor design.

Q16. What is assembler in a microprocessor?

An assembler in the microprocessor is a program translator responsible for converting assembly language into binary numbers or machine code. Assemblers have similarities with other translators such as compilers and interpreters. Executable codes are the outcome of all of the computer translator. Nevertheless, unlike other translators, the assembler converts low-level language (assembly language) to binary or machine language. Since every assembly language is created for one particular processor, program assembling is done with the use of one-to-one mapping.

Q17. What is memory mapping in a microprocessor?

Memory mapping can be defined as the translation that exists between the physical memory and logical address space. Memory mapping has many objectives that include helping in protecting the memory, translation from logical address to physical address and promoting better memory resources management. The importance of mapping to computer performance locally and globally can’t be overemphasized. When a computer program requests accessing of corresponding memory word and presenting of a logical memory address the mapping mechanism will translate that particular address to the right physical memory location.

Q18. What is clock speed in a microprocessor?

Clock speed in the microprocessor is the time frame a microprocessor takes to complete or finish a processing cycle. The clock speed in the microprocessor is measured in two units, megahertz or gigahertz.

A megahertz is the same with one million cycles for every second. On the other hand, one gigahertz is the same with one billion cycles for every second.

This simply means that a 1.5 gigahertz microprocessor has two clock speeds of a 750 megahertz microprocessor.

A single microprocessor might need more clock cycles to finish an instruction such as addition or subtraction than other microprocessors.

Q19. What is a dual-core microprocessor?

A dual-core microprocessor is a central processing unit that has two processors existing in one integrated circuit. The two processors have their own controller and cache that makes it possible for them to act efficiently. Since the two microprocessors are linked together, tasks done with it is faster than when a single processor is used. However, this does not happen always as the running software on the computer may not maximize the dual processor. The cost of getting a single processor is different from a dual-core microprocessor.

Q20. What is mnemonics in microprocessor?

A mnemonic in the microprocessor is either a symbol, a name or a term that defines a computer function or operation. A mnemonic is always used to give users quick access to computer functions, processes or services. Through mnemonics, a user will bypass the actual and longways or path to perform a task. An assembly language makes use of mnemonics to describe an opcode.

An example of a mnemonic is MOV which means moving data from one memory location or register to another. There are many other mnemonics in the microprocessor that makes achieving a computer task easier and faster.

Q21. What is an embedded microprocessor?

An embedded microprocessor or processor is a computer system chip that is used in many electronic devices to offer more functionality. A microprocessor is an electronic component that comprises resistors, transistors and other components combined together on one silicon integrated circuit. This integrated circuit which is small in size consumes less power. Microprocessors are cost-efficient, flexible and adaptable. They are often used in different controllers for fetching data, decoding data and processing data.

Q22. What is ale in microprocessor?

Ale in microprocessor stands for an address enable latch. ALE is a positive-going pulse that comes being when the microprocessor is starting a new operation. When there is rise in the pulse, it simply means that ALE is one and this enables the address bus. It will enable the data bus when ALE is zero (low pulse).

Q23. What is buffer in microprocessor?

A buffer in a microprocessor is a temporary storage location. It is found usually in the random access memory, RAM. Most buffers have one same purpose which is to serve as holding location, that is the storage area. When data are being held in the buffer, the central processing unit can easily manipulate or work on the data before it is transferred. Buffer helps in keeping track of files adjustment. An example is the wood processor that employs the services of buffer for keeping track of every change that occurs in its files.

Q24. How many pins in 8086 microprocessor have?

The 8086 microprocessor is a 16-bit microprocessor that has 40 pin DIP chip. It makes use of a 5V DC supply to operate. The 8086 microprocessor works with a 20-line address bus that works in multiplexed mode and 16-line data bus.

Q25. When was the first microprocessor introduced?

The first microprocessor was introduced by Intel in the year 1971. The name of the microprocessor was called the Intel 4004. The engineers behind the invention are Ted Hoff, Federico Faggin and Stanley Mazor.

Q26. What is adc in microprocessor?

An ADC in microprocessor stands for Analog to Digital Converter. This is a paramount feature that is responsible for converting an analog voltage present in a pin to a digital number. Analog to Digital Converter can be different between microcontrollers. It is only when an analog signal is converted to digital works that using an electronic world of analog is possible.

Q27. What is data bus in microprocessor?

In a general term, a bus is a collection of information-carrying wires. Every peripheral device such as mouse and keyboard is connected to the microprocessor via bus. It is made of data bus, address and control bus. A data bus carries data and flows in a bidirectional manner. That is, data flows from the microprocessor to input and output devices or memory and from memory and input and output devices back to the microprocessor. In an Intel 8085 microprocessor, data bus has a length of 8 bit. During the writing operation, the microprocessor places the data meant to be written on the data bus. The memory controller places data into the data bus from a particular memory location during a read operation.

About Author :

  • Author of Microprocessor Interview Questions

    Sharad Jaiswal

    My name is Sharad Jaiswal, and I am the founder of Conax web Solutions. My tech stacks are PHP, NodeJS, Angular, React. I love to write technical articles and programming blogs.

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