CodeIgniter Interview Questions

CodeIgniter Interview Questions | Freshers & Experienced

  • Toby Rogers
  • 15th Dec, 2021

About Codeigniter

We know that PHP is the most powerful language in the present time, but to execute it, developers use many frameworks. As it is easier for developers to combine the code with popular frameworks without adding additional code. From many frameworks, CodeIgniter is a widely used framework for PHP. Let’s see more about CodeIgniter and its features.

CodeIgniter is used to build dynamic web sites with PHP. It is an open open-source software rapid development web framework. It is based on the famous model-view-controller (MVC) development pattern. Besides, the model and views are optional in CodeIgniter. Moreover, Hierarchical Model View Controller (HMVC) can be used by modifying the CodeIgniter which helps the developer to manage the modular grouping of Models, Controller and View arranged in a sub-directory format. Coupling with this, the CodeIgniter is most preferable compared to other PHP frameworks due to its fascinating feature of speed.

The above is an overview of CodeIgniter and its some features. But if you want to know more about CodeIgniter to compete in an interview and get hired, then you must read our online interview questions. Below is the best collection of CodeIgniter interview questions that will definitely help you to get your dream job.

Key Features of Codeigniter

Below are few major features of Codeigniter

Light Weight

Query Builder

Security and XSS Filtering

Easy Session Management.

Model-View-Controller Syatem

Error Logging

Support Full Page Caching

Application Profiling

Hooks and Class Extensions

Flexible and search engine friendly URL

Unit Testing Ready

Built In Image Manipulation Libraries

CodeIgniter Interview Questions and Answers;

Q1. How to set csrf token in codeigniter?

CSRF stands for Cross-Site Request Forgery. It is an attack that forces an end user to execute unwanted actions on a web application in which they're currently authenticated.

Adding a CSRF token in your forms is a way to prevent your website by CSRF Attack.

CSRF in CodeIgniter:

First, we have to enable CSRF in Config file by adding

$config['csrf_regenerate'] = TRUE;

To add CSRF token in Custom Form

   $csrf = array(
    'name' => $this->security->get_csrf_token_name(),
    'hash' => $this->security->get_csrf_hash()

     <input name="<?=$csrf['name'];?>" value="<?=$csrf['hash'];?>" type="hidden" />

If you are creating your form using CodeIgniter helper then it will be enabled By default.

Q2. What is CodeIgniter?

CodeIgniter is a PHP based open-source software for developing web applications quickly. Released in 2006, CodeIgniter is an MVC based framework where controller classes are necessary, and models & views are not. CodeIgniter also has a lot of libraries for connecting to the database, and performing operations like uploading files, sending emails, managing sessions, etc.

Q3. Enlist major features of CodeIgniter Framework?

Some of the features in CodeIgniter are,

Faster Performance – The loading time of the CodeIgniter application is faster and it offers exceptional performance when compared to other PHP frameworks.

MVC Architecture – It uses the industry-standard MVC architecture for building web applications.

Excellent documentation – The CodeIgniter framework is well documented with good tutorials, books, etc. Any problem that you might encounter in building a CodeIgniter application might already have a solution.

Loosely Coupled – The features in the CodeIgniter works independently without affecting other features. It makes it easy to maintain and upgrade.

Short Learning curve – People who are familiar with the PHP language can easily work with the CodeIgniter framework.

Extendable – You can create your own libraries, packages, helpers if you are not okay with the built-in libraries.

Small footprint – The CodeIgniter source code totally makes up to only 2mb. So it simplifies deploying and updating.

Q4. Why CodeIgniter is called as loosely based MVC framework?

The CodeIgniter follows an MVC based design architecture. But it is called loosely based MVC architecture because the controller in the MVC is the only necessary part. The models and views in the MVC are optional.

Q5. Who is creator of CodeIgniter Framework?

The CodeIgniter is created by EllisLab, and it is now a part of the British Columbia of technology.

Q6. What is ExpressionEngine?

The ExpressionEngine is a Content Management System (CMS) developed by EllisLab. It is a commercial and modular CMS that is suitable for both small static and dynamic sites. It allows the website manager to manage the website without understanding the code.

Some of the features in the ExpressionEngine are managed mailing list, search engine and query tools, user comment system, traffic statistics, variety of plug-ins & modules, and data caching.

Q7. What are hooks in CodeIgniter? List few of them?

Hooks in the CodeIgniter are events that are called before and after the execution of a program. With hooks, you can execute a script in the CodeIgniter execution process without modifying the core files.

For eg: You can check whether a user is logged in or not before executing a controller with hooks.

To enable hook, go to the application/config/config.php file and set the ‘enable_hooks’ config as TRUE.

Different hook points in the CodeIgniter are,

  • PRE_SYSTEM – It is called before the system execution.
  • PRE_CONTROLLER – It is called prior to the controller execution.
  • POST_CONTROLLER – It is called after the controller is executed.
  • DISPLAY_OVERRIDE – It is used to send the final page at the completion of file execution.
  • CACHE_OVERRIDE – It is used to call your custom function in output class.

Q8. What is MVC in CodeIgniter?

CodeIgniter is based on [Model-View-Controller] architecture design. It separates the application logic from the presentation. The Model part in the MVC is used to represent your data structures. With this, you can retrieve, insert, and update data to the database. The View part is used to present the information to the user. In CodeIgniter, the view can be a web page or page fragments like header or footer. The Controller is the interface between the model and the view. It provides the resources needed to process the HTTP request from the client and return the result to generate a web page. MVC in CodeIgniter is called loosely based as the model and view are optional. Only the controller in the CodeIgniter MVC is necessary to define.

Q9. Explain Codeigniter's application Flow Chart?

The CodeIgniter application flowchart works as follows,

  1. When a request comes to the CodeIgniter, it will go to the index.php page first.
  2. The Routing next decides whether to pass the request to the caching or to the security check. If the requested page is in the cache, then the response will go back to the user immediately. If it is not in the caching, then the request will go to the security check.
  3. After the security check is done, the application controller loads all the Models, libraries, helpers, and scripts for the response and passes it to the view.
  4. The view provides the page with available data and passes it on to the caching for future requests.

Q10. How to do 301 redirects in CodeIgniter?

The URL helper function redirect() is used to perform the 301 redirects. The redirect function mainly does a header redirect to the URI specified.


the $uri represents the URI string. $method represents the redirect method such as ‘auto’, ‘location’, or ‘refresh’. $code represents the HTTP response code. This function returns the void type. The third optional parameter is used to create 301 redirects for the purpose of a search engine. The default code is 302, but it can be changed.

redirect(‘/article/11’, ‘location’, 301);

Q11. Explain model in CodeIgniter?

The Models in the PHP CodeIgniter are the PHP classes that work with the information in the database. The model class does the database related operations such as insert, update, and retrieve data from the database. The model classes are mainly stored in the application/models/directory. A basic prototype of the model class is,

class Model_name extent CI_Model{

The filename of the model must match the model class name.

Q12. How to load a model in CodeIgniter?

The model class is loaded and called from the controller methods. To load a model class, use the following.


If the model is stored in a sub-directory, then include the path.


Q13. How can you remove index.php from URL in Codeigniter?

The index.php can be removed from the URL in the CodeIgniter by doing some changes in the .htaccess file if the mod_rewrite is enabled in your apache server. But first, open the config.php file and rewrite the following.

$config[‘index_page’] = “”
$config[‘uri_protocol’] = “REQUEST_URI”
Then, in your .htaccess file replace the last line with RewriteRule ^(.*)$ index.php?/$1 [L, QSA]

Q14. Explain routing in Codeigniter?

In CodeIgniter, routing is responsible for responding to the URL requests. Routing is used to match the URL to the pre-defined routes. If no route is matched, then the Codeigniter throws an exception. You can create your own routing rules in the application/config/routes.php file. Here, in the $route array, you can specify your own routing rules. It can be specified with either wildcards or regular expressions.

Q15. What are helpers in Codeigniter? List some of them?

Helpers in the CodeIgniter are designed to help the developer with specific tasks. It is a collection of functions to do a specific task. Helpers are stored in system/helpers, or application/helpers directory, and you need to load it to use it.

To load a helper, use the following method.


Some of the helpers in CodeIgniter are,

  • URL helpers – It helps in creating links.
  • Form helpers – It helps in creating form elements.
  • Text helpers – It helps in-text formatting routines.
  • Cookie helpers – it helps to set and read cookies.
  • File helpers – It helps in dealing with files like reading or writing it.

Q16. What are different types of messages you can log in Codeigniter?

The log messages are written in log files for various purposes using the log_message() function.

There are three different log messages in CodeIgniter such as debug message, error message, and info message.

Error message – These messages are actual errors like PHP error or user error.

Debug message – These messages assist in debugging.

Informational message – It is a low priority message for providing information regarding some processes.

Q17. In which files Codeigniter routes are defined?

The routes in the CodeIgniter are defined in the routes.php file which is stored in the application/config directory.

Q18. What is name of default controller in CodeIgniter?How can you change it.

The default controller parameter in the CodeIgniter is used to load a controller when a URI is not defined. To specify your own default controller, go to the application/config/routes.php file and set the following variable.

$route[‘default_controller’] = “default_controller_name”;

Q19. How to get last inserted id in CodeIgniter?

The insert_id() function is used to return the last inserted id in the CodeIgniter database For eg: $insertId = $this->db->insert_id(); The above line returns the last inserted id in the database ‘db’ to the $insertid variable.

In Database programming, it is often important to get the id of the last inserted item. CodeIgniter framework allows you to get the last inserted id using the function insert_id().

It is one of the functions in the database library provided in the CodeIgniter framework.

$input = ['name'=>'Courseya', 'description'=>'Find Best Programming Courses.']; //creating an input data 
 $this->db->insert('items', $input); //inserting the input data 
 $insertId = $this->db->insert_id(); //returns the id of the last inserted data.

Q20. What are inhibitor in Codeigniter?

Inhibitor in CodeIgniter is an error handling class. It uses the native PHP error handling functions like set_exception_handler, set_error_handler, and register_shutdown_function to handle errors like parse error, exception error, and fatal error.

All the error handler is a user-defined error handler.


Q21. How will you call a constructor in CodeIgniter?

To call a constructor in the controller of the CodeIgniter class,

Use the following code in it.


Q22. How to load multiple helper files in CodeIgniter?

Helpers in CodeIgniter are used to perform different tasks. Each helper in CodeIgniter has a particular role. To load multiple helpers, specify the helpers in an array.

//example of loading multiple helpers. 
$this->load->helper(array(‘helper1’, ‘helper2’, ‘helper3’, ‘helper4’, ‘helper5'));

Q23. How do you set default timezone in Codeigniter?

The time zone in the CodeIgniter can be set globally in your application’s config file located at application/config.php.

$config[‘time_reference’] = ‘Asia/Dubai’; 

The above configuration sets the default time zone to Asia/Dubai.

Q24. What is CSRF? How do you set csrf token in codeIgniter?

The CSRF is an attack that forces the victim’s browser to send a forged HTTP request with the victim’s session, cookie, and other information. To protect from this account, CSRF has a secret hidden field called CSRF token. It is a random value that changes for every HTTP request. It makes it tough for hackers to attack.

To enable the CSRF token, go to the application/config/config.php path and set.

$confg[‘csrf_protection’] = TRUE; 

Q25. List out major databases supported by Codeigniter?

The supported database by the CodeIgniter is,

  • MySQL version 5.1 and above through MySQL, MySQL, and PDO drivers.
  • Oracle DB through oci8 and PDO drivers.
  • PostgreSQL through posture and PDO drivers.
  • SQLite through SQLite, sqlite3, and PDO drivers.
  • CUBRID through cubrid and PDO drivers.
  • Interbase and Firebird through ibase and PDO drivers.
  • ODBC through odbc and PDO drivers.

Q26. What is_cli() method do in Codeigniter?

The is_clli() function checks whether the application is running in the command line or not. It returns TRUE if the application is running in the command line and FALSE otherwise.

Q27. How to get random records in MySQL using CodeIgniter?

The order_by() function can be used to order the records in the MySQL database to a random order and get the result in random. Order_by() has two arguments. The first one is the column name, and the second takes ‘RANDOM' to return random value.

$this->db->order_by(‘id’, ‘RANDOM’); 
$data = $this->db->(“item”);

The first line orders the data into a random order. Second-line gets random data.

Q28. How to enable CodeIgniter hook?

Hooks in the CodeIgniter can be enabled in the config.php file in the following path application/config/config.php file.

$config[‘enable_hooks’] = TRUE; //set TRUE to this parameter to enable the hook. 

Q29. How to initialize or load a driver in CodeIgniter?

Drivers in the CodeIgniter are a special library that has a parent class and many potential child classes.

To use the driver, you need to initialize it within a controller using the following method.


Q30. How to check the the installed version of CodeIgniter framework?

To check the version of the CodeIgniter installed in your system, go to the CodeIgniter.php file in the system/core path. Inline 35 of the file, you’ll find the version like define(‘CI_VERSION’, ‘3.0.6’);

Another way is to use the code <?PHP echo CI_VERSION ?>. It returns the version of the CodeIgniter installed.

Q31. What are Sessions In CodeIgniter? How to read, write or remove session in CodeIgniter?

The session class in the CodeIgniter lets you maintain a user's state. It also lets you track user’s activity as they browse on your site.

You can create your session using the Session class in CodeIgniter.

To read data from the session, use the following code.

$this->session->userdata(‘data’); //data is the array index to be retrieved.

To add data to the session, use the following code.

$this->session->set_userdata(‘data’); //data is the array index to be added.

To remove session data, use the following code.

$this->session->unset_userdata(“name”); //it removes all data from the session. 

Q32. How to add or link an images/CSS/JavaScript from a view in CI?

To load CSS, JS, and other resources from a view in the CodeIgniter, first store all the resources in the appropriate folder. CSS file in the CSS folder and JS file in the JS folder.

Then, use the base_url() function to load the resource from view.

To load base_url() method.


To use the resource in the view.

<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="<?php echo base_url(); ?>css/style.css"> 
<script type='text/javascript' src="<?php echo base_url(); ?>js/jquery.min.js"> 

Q33. List some common functions of Codeigniter?

Some of the common function in the CodeIgniter is,


It takes version number as a parameter. It returns TRUE if the PHP version is at least the version specified and FALSE otherwise.


It takes a file path as a parameter. It returns TRUE if you can’t write to the file and FALSE otherwise.


It returns TRUE if you are currently using HTTP-over SSL, and FALSE otherwise.


It returns TRUE if you are running in the command line, and FALSE otherwise.


It returns a reference to the MIME array from the mimes.php file in the application/config path.

Q34. How to set or get config variables in Codeigniter?

We can set or get config variables in Codeigniter with the writes of these codes.

To get/retrieve an item from the config file, use the following line.


To set an item or change the value of the existing item, use the following code.

$this->config->set_item(‘item_name’, ‘item_value’); 

Q35. How to delete a record in Codeigniter?

The record can be deleted using the delete() function. First, get the id of the record to delete that particular record.

//code to delete a record in CodeIgniter. 
$this->db->delete(‘table’, array(‘id’ => $id)); //it deletes the $id record from the table. 

Q36. List the resources that can be autoloaded in Codeigniter?

The autoload feature in the CodeIgniter lets you initialize libraries, helpers, and models automatically for every time the system runs.

Things that can be loaded automatically are,

  • Helper files in the helper directory.
  • Custom config files in the config directory.
  • Language files in the system/language directory.
  • Models in the model folder.
  • Classes present in the library directory.

Q37. What is the default URL pattern used in Codeigniter framework?

CodeIgniter uses a segment-based approach than a query-based approach for URL. The main components of the URL are controller, server name, action or method, and parameter.

//Example URL in the CodeIgniter.

Here is the server name. The user is the controller. Get in the action or method. The name is the parameter.

Q38. What is an ORM, List ORM's for CodeIgniter?

An ORM (Object Relational Mapper) is designed to map the database tables in your application to easily work with objects. It also creates a relationship between them.

Some of the ORM used in CodeIgniter are.

Gas ORM – An ORM built for the CodeIgniter app that uses database packages to support numerous DB drivers. A lightweight and easy-to-use ORM that provides a method to map the database into objects.

Doctrine Mapper – It has several PHP libraries to focus on database storage and object mapping. It is built upon ORM and DABL (Database Abstraction Layer).

DataMapper – An ORM that is written in PHP to map the database into objects.

Q39. In which directory logs are saved in Codeigniter?

The log messages in the CodeIgniter are stored in /application/logs folder. To store the log, make the logs folder writable.

Q40. How to enable error logging in Codeigniter?

To enable the error logging in CodeIgniter, set $config[‘log_threshold’] variable as 1 in the config.php file present at /application/config path.

Q41. How to connect multiple databases in CodeIgniter?

To connect to multiple databases simultaneously in the CodeIgniter,

Use the following code.

$DB1 = $this->load->database('group_one', TRUE); 
$DB2 = $this->load->database('group_two', TRUE); 

Here group_one and group_two are the specific database group specified in your config file.

Q42. Enlist few benefits of CodeIgniter?

Developed using PHP, CodeIgniter offers the benefits of PHP web development along with its benefit such as,

  • CodeIgniter utilizes a modular programming concept.
  • CodeIgniter is simple, fast, and requires less code to write.
  • CodeIgniter is simple, fast, and requires less code to write.
  • It works cross-platform, and it is compatible with most of the web server, operating systems.
  • It offers lots of useful built-in libraries to develop web applications with high functionality.
  • It supports both front and back end development.
  • It offers an easy migration and configuration between different servers.
  • Based on the MVC architecture but doesn’t force to use MVC.

Q43. What is csrf in Codeigniter?

CSRF is a security class that is used to create a secure application. Expanded as Cross-site request forgery, and you can enable it by changing the file found in the path “application/config/config.php” and setting the following config true,

$config['csrf_protection'] = TRUE;

If you’re working with the form in CodeIgniter the form_open() function by default will insert the csrf field which is hidden in your form. You can get csrf hash and token name by using the function get_csrf_hash() and get_csrf_token_name(). Csrf token is regenerated every time form is submitted.

The main use of CSRF class is to prevent CSRF attacks in your web application.

Q44. How to get current url in Codeigniter?

CodeIgniter provides a URL helper library to get the URL of the existing page and base page. To get URL, use current_url() function. But before using the current_url() function, you should load the URL helper.

$this->load->helper('url'); // load the url helper
$currentURL = current_url(); // get the url 
print_r($currentURL); // print the url 

Q45. Explain timezone helper in Codeigniter?

Time zone reference in CodeIgniter comes under the data helper file that helps in working with the dates. To set the time zone, one should extend the date helper class.

$timezone = config_item('time_reference');

To change the default time zone, go to the config.php file and set the time reference.

$config[‘time_reference’] = ‘Asia/Dhaka’; 

Q46. How to set base url in Codeigniter?

The base URL of the CodeIgniter can be set in the config.php file in the following path, Application/config/config.php

$config[‘base_url’] = ‘’; 

Typically, it is the URL to the CodeIgniter root. If the base URL is not set by the user, then CodeIgniter will try to guess the installation path, domain, and set it as the URL. This auto-detection of the base URL should not be used in the production process.

Eg: $config['base_url'] = '';

Q47. How to add library in Codeigniter?

CodeIgniter provides a rich set of libraries that are used to improve the development process of our web application. The library is located in the folder system/library. We can just load the library and use it in our application.

$this->load->library('class name'); //syntax to load the library

Here, ‘class name’ is just the name of the library that we should use in our application.

$this->load->library('email'); //example of a loading email class library in our application. 

Loading multiple libraries is also possible by passing the name of the library as an array to the library() function.

$this->load->library(array('email', 'table')); //example of loading multiple libraries.

Q48. List different types of cache supported by Codeigniter?

CodeIgniter supports various types of caching and caching is essential for improving your application speed and reducing the server overhead. The types of caching method in CodeIgniter are,

APC Caching

Abbreviated as Alternative PHP Cache, it is used to store bytecode at an execution time. So, the bytecode can be reused every time the program is recompiled.

$this->load->driver('cache'); //loading APC cache driver. 
$this->cache->apc->save('foo', 'bar', 10); //saving data into APC cache.

File-based caching

This type of caching allows for pieces of your files to be cached. You need to be careful with this because there is a chance that IO disks will negate positive gains by caching.

$this->load->driver('cache'); //loading file cache driver. 
$this->cache->file->save('foo', 'bar', 10); //save some data into file cache.

Memcached caching

It is a distributed caching system that stored database objects in dynamic memory to improve performance. Memcached servers can be specified in the memcached.php config file that is located in the application/config directory.

$this->load->driver('cache'); //loads the memcached driver 
$this->cache->memcached->save('foo', 'bar', 10); //saves some data into mamcache

In all the above cache, the specific drivers need not be mentioned to load the cache.

Dummy cache

It stores no data. It stores your caching code in the place where it doesn’t support the chosen cache.

Q49. How to write truncate query in Codeigniter?

Truncating a table deletes all its data from it. With the QueryBuilder class in the CodeIgniter, you can truncate the table. If the truncate command is not available, then CodeIgniter will use the “DELETE FROM” table command.

There is two ways to truncate a table.


Q50. How to use orderby clause in CodeIgniter?

The order_by clause statement returns the resulting set in ascending, descending, or in some random order. order_by clause is present in the CodeIgniter query builder class. order_by() clause was called as orderby().

$this->db->order_by('title', 'DESC');

The above statement is an example of the order_by clause. The first parameter “title” is the name of the column that you want to get sorted. The second parameter “DESC” lets you sort the column in descending order.

Multiple order_by statements can also be made.

$this->db->order_by('title', 'DESC'); 
$this->db->order_by('name', 'ASC'); 

Random ordering can also be done, but the first parameter is ignored unless you specify a numeric seed value.

$this->db->order_by(42, 'RANDOM'); // sorts by order rand(42)

CodeIgniter vs Laravel



It supports more database.

It supports the limited database.

It follows the relational object-oriented

It follows the object-oriented method.

The template language is PHP proprietary

The template language is Blade Template Engine

It is for those who use a simple tool kit

It is for those who need an elegant and modest kind of toolkit

It is component driven

It is object-oriented event-driven functional

It supports explicit and implicit routing

It supports explicit routing

It does not support built in the modular feature

It supports built in the modular feature

It does not support the HTTP route sufficiently.

It supports HTTP routes

CodeIgniter vs Yii



 Programming language is PHP

Programming language is PHP.

It is under the MIT license

It is under the BSD license

Template language of CodeIgniter is PHP proprietary

Template language of Yii is PHP smarty twig

It supports component-oriented

It supports object-oriented event-driven.

Advantages of CodeIgniter

  • CodeIgniter is trustworthy and lightweight.

  • It offers PHP developer the easiest way to utilize modular programs and get a specific function through the framework.

  • PHP developer finds it easy in CodeIgniter to utilize modular programs and get a specific function through the framework.

  • It fits almost with all operating systems, web servers and platforms.

  • CodeIgniter help PHP developers to create a web application with high-end functionalities and additional features. It is possible due to the In-built libraries and resources provided by the CodeIgniter.

  • This helps the programmers to build web applications in a secured manner.

  • CodeIgniter helps the developer to create rear end and the front end of the application efficiently.

  • It offers easy customization and configuration of files and also supports hassle-free migration

  • Developers are able to reduce the amount of code required to develop an application of PHP.

  • CodeIgniter is quite useful in detecting the error and neutralizing it. It is a very user- friendly framework. It provides the developer's bug handling and debugging messages.

  • CodeIgniter provides the form validation feature to the developers. By this, they are able to write the code in a single line. You are able to use Effective validation framework system to write codes.

  • It is easy to edit the existing CodeIgniter files which are helpful for the developers to create what they want. Beginners can use this to avoid confusion.

  • You can use the migration aspect for the management of the database scheme. It is very easy to migrate server in CodeIgniter.

Disadvantages of CodeIgniter

  • Does not emphasize on code maintainability
  • Most of the enterprises demand from programmers to write clean, readable and structured code. These codes help the enterprise to manage, modify and update the web application in the future. However, CodeIgniter does not provide this feature at default as other frameworks do. The developers have to add some extra time and efforts to maintain the code.
  • An Absence of Exhaustive Libraries
  • Libraries perform a vital role in the framework. Like the other web frameworks, CodeIgniter also enhances the custom web applications by serving with a large number of libraries. Further, it allows the developers to install the libraries according to the need. You can also extend the libraries by extending and customize the native libraries by extending the native classes. But the CodeIgniter's libraries are not exhaustive as compared to other frameworks.
  • Not pure Object Oriented
  • CodeIgniter is mainly based on PHP which means it is not object-oriented in some parts, thus it doesn’t work like other object-oriented languages which are more efficient then CodeIgniter.

About Author :

  • Author of CodeIgniter Interview Questions

    Toby Rogers

    Toby Rogers is blogger, Developer and Data Science Expert. He have good understanding of nosql databases, Python, Lisp and Scala Programming Language.

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